How coronavirus (COVID-19) is transmitted and how to avoid it ?

Transmission of the SARS-CoV-2 corona virus, responsible for COVID-19 infection, occurs mainly through contact with infected people through the inhalation of saliva drops and respiratory secretions that are kept suspended in the air when the person COVID-19 carrier coughs or sneezes.
For this reason, it is important that preventive measures are adopted, such as washing hands with soap and water, avoiding contact with people who may be infected and avoiding closed environments with many people and with little air circulation. In addition, it is important to cover your mouth and nose whenever you cough or sneeze, in this way it is also possible to avoid the spread and transmission of the virus.
Corona virus is a family of viruses responsible for respiratory disturbances, which generally cause fever, severe cough, and shortness of breath. Learn more about the corona virus and the symptoms of COVID-19 infection.
How corona virus (COVID-19) is transmitted and how to avoid it

The main forms of transmission of the new corona virus appear to be through:

Saliva droplets and respiratory secretions

The most common form of transmission of the new corona virus is through inhalation or direct contact with droplets of saliva or respiratory secretions, which are present in the air for a few seconds to minutes after an infected person coughs or sneezes.

This form of transmission justifies the large number of people infected by the virus and, therefore, was declared by the World Health Organization as the main form of transmission, and measures must be taken to avoid contact with these respiratory secretions, such as Avoid going indoors with many people and covering your mouth and nose when you need to cough or sneeze.

According to research by the National Institute of Infectious Diseases in Japan [3], the risk of contracting the corona virus is 19 times higher in closed environments than outdoors, precisely because there is closer contact between people and for a longer time .

Contact with contaminated surfaces

Contact with contaminated surfaces also appears to be an important form of contagion, since, according to research conducted in the United States [2], the new corona virus can remain infectious for up to three days on some surfaces:

    Plastic and stainless steel: up to 3 days;
    Copper: 4 hours;
    Carton: 24 hours.

When you put your hands on these surfaces and then rub your face, scratch your eyes, or clean your mouth, you may be able to catch the virus, which can enter the body through the mucous membranes of your mouth, your eyes and nose.

For this reason, the WHO recommends that you wash your hands frequently, especially after being in public places or having a higher risk of being infected by respiratory secretions. In addition, it is also important to disinfect surfaces regularly. See more about cleaning surfaces at home and at work to protect yourself from the COVID-19.

Consumption of wild animals

This appears to be the first recorded form of spread of the new corona virus, which comes from contact and consumption of infected wild animals in a Chinese market. Therefore, contact or consumption of sick animals, especially wild animals, such as snakes and bats, is completely contraindicated.

Contact with contaminated feces

A study carried out in February 2020 in China [1] also suggested that transmission of the new corona virus could occur via the fecal-oral route, mainly in children, because 8 of the 10 children included in the study had an outcome positive for corona virus on the rectal swab and negative on the nasal swab, indicating that the virus could remain in the gastrointestinal tract.

Furthermore, a more recent study from May 2020 [4], also showed that it was possible to isolate the virus in the faces of 12 of the 28 adults studied and diagnosed with COVID-19.

Learn in the video below how transmission occurs and how to protect yourself from COVID-19:

How to prevent the spread of the corona virus

To avoid corona virus infection, it is recommended to take protective measures to prevent the spread of the virus, such as:

    Wash your hands well with soap and water, mainly after coming into contact with people who have the virus or who are suspected;
    Avoid closed and crowded environments, in these environments the virus can spread more easily and reach more people
Use individual protection masks to cover the nose and mouth and avoid both transmission and infection. In regions with a higher risk of infection and for health professionals caring for people with suspected corona viruses, the use of N95, N100, FFP2 or FFP3 masks is recommended;
     Avoid contact with wild animals or animals that appear to be sick, since transmission can occur between animals and people;
     Avoid sharing personal items that may contain saliva drops, for example cutlery and glasses.

In addition, as a way to avoid transmission, the WHO is developing and implementing monitoring measures for suspicions and cases of corona virus infection, so that the virulence of the virus and the transmission mechanism are addressed. See other ways to protect yourself from the corona virus.

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